DUMBO, the acronym for ‘Down Under the Manhattan Bridge Overpass’, is an area that has reinvented itself many times since it was first settled in the 1600s. In the 1970s, the area was known as Fulton Landing, a no-man’s-land between Vinegar Hill and Brooklyn Heights. FPE’s involvement in the area began in the 1980s. Since then, FPE has worked on the restoration and adaptive reuse of 15 turn-of-the-century, cast-concrete and masonry loft buildings. Initially FPE converted these buildings for commercial use. Since rezoning in 1998, however, FPE’s efforts have been focused on residential conversion - both rental and condominium.